Theme 2. 1. Migration of labor.
Theme 2. 1. Migration of labor.
1. The concept, the reasons for the migration of labor.
2. Types of labor migration. “The drain of minds”: concept, factors, channels.
3. Implications of migration for donor countries and host countries (recipients).
The concept, the causes of labor migration.
The process of internationalization of production, which is taking place all over the world, is accompanied by the internationalization of the labor force and its international migration.
The international m game of the labor force is the movement of persons of wage labor between countries for more than one year, caused by economic and other reasons. In the world practice labor migrants usually go for a period of 2 to 7 years.
There are also migration of the population – the movement of people associated with the change of residence.
Multidirectional flows of labor resources between countries form the world labor market.
In other words, the world labor market is formed by the export and import of labor.
– internal, that is, the movement of people within the country; it is of great economic importance, being a form of redistribution of labor resources;
– external, that is, the movement of people outside the country; it affects the population of the country, increasing or decreasing it by the size of the migration balance (the migration balance is the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants)
Outward migration is characterized by emigration and immigration.
Emigration is the departure from the country of stay in another country for permanent or long-term residence (more than one year).
Immigration – arrival in the country for permanent or long-term residence (more than one year).
The international migration of labor is due to unevenness.
– socio-economic development of countries, and hence – differences in the possibility of using labor;
– distribution of labor between national economies. So, in the developed countries only 16% of economically active population of the world are concentrated. The bulk of the world’s workforce is accounted for.
– East and South-East Asia (30%),
– Tropical Africa (10%).
The reasons for migration are mainly economic:
– the search for a livelihood,
– lack of means to live.
But there may be other reasons:
– political, for example, rejection of the political system, the threat of repression;
– national, racial, for example, the inability to identify oneself with one’s own nation, discrimination on the basis of nationality, the problems of the development of national culture, etc .;
– ideological, for example, disagreement with the ideology held in a given country;
– religious, for example, the inability to conduct religious rites;
– ecological and others.
The reasons for the increase in labor migration are large-scale machine production, which leads to an increase in unemployment. At present, the automation of production and services in connection with the proliferation of microelectronics leads to a very significant reduction in employment in obsolete industries.
The greatest saving of living labor – up to 40-50% – is achieved in connection with the replacement of mechanical parts with microelectronics, as happened in the production of watches, telephones, teletypes, sewing machines, etc.
Significantly reduced labor in the machine tool industry: one machine with numerical control software eliminates two jobs.
The introduction of the latest technology can cause a reduction in employment not only in their own country, but also in other countries. So, along with the export of goods, there is also a kind of export of unemployment. So, the introduction of robots in the industry of Japan caused an increase in unemployment not only in it, but in other less developed countries, where this production is directed.
The movement of the labor force is closely connected with the movement of capital and is largely due to its movement.
In the XIX and XX centuries. – before the First World War, there was a unidirectional movement of both flows. Labor moved behind the capitals. The result of this movement was the appearance of white colonies inhabited by white settlers. Thus, by 1914, 22% of the population of Canada, 30% of the inhabitants of Argentina, more than 26% of New Zealanders were first-generation immigrants. Workers born in the US did not account for half of all workers in the country.
But in the 20th century, flows of capital and labor began to move in opposite directions.
Of the less developed countries, the flow of emigrants was directed to the capital-exporting industrial countries, which needed both unskilled and skilled labor.
The main exporters of labor are traditionally the developing and less developed countries of a market economy, that is, the countries where it is observed.
– shortage of jobs,
– low income per capita and.
– low level of wages.
In other words, these are overpopulated countries with a high level of natural growth and relatively slow economic development.
More than half of international migrants come from developing countries.
The main suppliers of labor are India, Pakistan, Philippines, Malaysia, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, Ghana, Tunisia. There is an outflow of labor from Mexico.
At present, some former socialist countries (countries with transitional economies) are exporting labor. So, in just 10 months of 1993, more than 57 thousand people left the country for permanent residence from the former USSR.
Exports of labor are not only developed, but also developed countries such as Italy, Portugal, Greece. The point here is not in the general level of industrial and technical development, but in the difference of national salaries. So, in 1993 the cost of labor in the manufacturing industry.
– in Germany was more than 28 dollars. at one o’clock,
– in Switzerland – 25,
– in the USA, France – 18,
– in Italy – 17 dollars per hour.
To continue downloading, you need to collect the image: